2013: Farias et al
Farias et al (2013)
Previous research has sought to see a connection between New Age, pagan, and either benign schizotypia, or uncertain attachment. The first is seen as positive, the second as something negative.
Insecure attachment, unhealthy emotional compensation
The study addressed these clashing views, conflikting.
Schizotype and attachment style were measured, and combined with anxiety and depression scales
Even death anxiety, to see if modern spiritual beliefs can help dampen existential anxiety such as ordinary religion
Farias calls these two "Modern Spirituality" and believes that this is not really what Granqvist has researched, if uncertain attachment.
Test subjects: Spir 84 women and 30 men
38.5% pagan-wicca-etc, 30.8% Spiritual but not rel , 11.1% Druids, 11.1% Shamans
8.5% div, Thelema, druidry and shamanism "Pre-Chrisian mythology, multiply deities, a love of nature, and rituals
Results: Shows that the new spirituality as much as traditional religion can help. Therefore, one should stop seeing new worlds of imagination as more dangerous, "de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiencies"
These were fine. Unusual, spiritual experiences, etc., were what separated the spiritual from the Christian control group. Anxiety and depression were equal. Supports the idea that spiritual, supernatural experiences are supported in groups.
Death anxiety was like for traditional religious people.
Modern spirituality was not correlated with uncertain or evasive attachment. They cannot therefore be linked to seeking spirituality to compensate
Both groups reported high social support (which versus this with uncertain attachment, then reporting poor social support)
Faria's undesearch supports the link bony schizotypy and spiritual interest
Farias points out that the study supports that there are various underlying factors that make one seek one or the other spirituality: the modern spiritual here reported more spiritual experiences… (Support for Granqvist)
Farias notes that there may be a difference in who is recruited. Granqvist from new age cafes etc and booksellers…
This also has implications for how psychiatry should handle this… People with psychotic symptoms, with religious elements, better clinical status
Farias predicts that the clinics of the future will face much more of quasi-magical ideaes about reality and about their illness.
Having a group supports, and makes your own spiritual experiences feel meaningful and bother less
Meditation, yoga, energy healing… Alternative, New age or Pagan, known as
Unusual experiences and ideas are the main predictor of being engaged in modern spiritual practicies
Anxiety, depression and insecure attachment were not predictors of this, or correlated
Supporters report high social support satisfaction and this predicts involvement in such movements
Spiritual activities were negatively correlated and were negatively predicted with the Death Anxiety scale
End: The result strengthens the association between modern spirituality, good mental health and overall well-being
1) Benign schizotypy, or even as an asset: Unusual experiences, harmless delusions, and magical thinking
2) Uncertain attachment, participating in new age acts as "emotional compensation" for this
Those with unusual experiences, were supported in their groups, where this was given a positive interpretation
"Terror Management Theory"
TMT, on traditional religious shown they have less fear of death
Explanation: Having a philosophy of life that is life-structuring, beliefs, can alleviate death anxiety
People with a secure attachment are more likely to socially based religiousity given to them by their parents, as positive parental relationships also provide a positive attachment to God.
Those with uncertain attachment are increasingly looking for alternative spirituality
Granqvist (2007) showed that high scores on NAOS correlated with disorganized attachment and possible traumatic stages
Granqvist has argued that poor strategies for dealing with uncertain attachment experiences are actively incorporated into modern spiritual philosophy, so that modern spirituality is not only ineffective in compensating for uncertain attachment, but supports unhealthy patterns (very irate, preockup," granqvist said. Self-absorption, Faras &gr, 2007!!)
Other research has supported the link between modern spiritual literature and anxious adult attachment style (Saroglou, Kemp.. Et al, 2003)
Absorption, a propensity to enter dissociative states, as a link between uncertain attachment and modern spirituality (Granqv Fr Ha, 2009)
Uncertain duck and modern sprout – then should not feel good, because the uncertain duck is associated with anxiety and depression, and not feeling you get social support, or seek it
Trad rel reports strong social support, but what about modern spirituality followers?